Observation

Measurements and simple assertions made about a patient, device or other subject.

Overview

Observations are a central element in healthcare, used to support diagnosis, monitor progress, determine baselines and patterns and even capture demographic characteristics. Most observations are simple name/value pair assertions with some metadata, but some observations group other observations together logically, or even are multi-component observations.
NOTE:

  • Pediatric vital observations (BMI Percentile, Weight-for-length Percentile, and Head Occipital-frontal Circumference Percentile) from Hospitalization (Inpatient) visits or charts are not supported.
  • Arterial blood pressure, Central venous pressure, and Ventilator observations are not supported.
  • Vital observations captured in the Ambulatory visits or charts during Procedures are not supported.

This profile is used to define the content that will be returned by the API Server in response to requests to access Observation resources. All elements described in the Definition and Detailed Definitions below are supported, which means that the API Server is capable of supplying these fields from the product database when they have been populated via the product or its APIs.

This resource is referenced by: DiagnosticReport.

Definition

The official URL for this profile is:

https://fhir.athena.io/StructureDefinition/ah-observation

The base definition for this profile is:

Observation

NameFlagsCard.TypeDescription & Constraintsdoco
.. ObservationI0..*ObservationMeasurements and simple assertions
... idΣ0..1stringLogical id of this artifact
... metaΣ0..1MetaMetadata about the resource
.... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
Slice: Unordered, Open by value:url
.... versionIdΣ0..1idVersion specific identifier
.... lastUpdatedΣ0..1instant (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.sss+zz:zz)When the resource version last changed
.... sourceΣ0..1uriIdentifies where the resource comes from
.... profileΣ0..*canonical(StructureDefinition)Profiles this resource claims to conform to
.... securityΣ0..*CodingSecurity Labels applied to this resource
Binding: All Security Labels (extensible): Security Labels from the Healthcare Privacy and Security Classification System.


.... tagΣ0..*CodingTags applied to this resource
Binding: CommonTags (example): Codes that represent various types of tags, commonly workflow-related; e.g. "Needs review by Dr. Jones".


... implicitRules?!Σ0..1uriA set of rules under which this content was created
... text0..1NarrativeText summary of the resource, for human interpretation
... contained0..*ResourceContained, inline Resources
... Slices for extension1..*ExtensionExtension
Slice: Unordered, Open by value:url
... ahChartSharingGroup0..1Reference(Organization)athenahealth Chart Sharing Group
URL: https://fhir.athena.io/StructureDefinition/ah-chart-sharing-group
... ahPractice1..1Reference(Organization)athenahealth Practice
URL: https://fhir.athena.io/StructureDefinition/ah-practice
... modifierExtension?!0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored
... identifierΣ0..*IdentifierBusiness Identifier for observation
... status?!Σ1..1coderegistered | preliminary | final | amended +
Binding: ObservationStatus (required): Codes providing the status of an observation.

... category0..*CodeableConceptClassification of type of observation
Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred): Codes for high level observation categories.


... codeΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

... subjectΣ0..1Reference(Patient)Who and/or what the observation is about
... encounterΣ0..1Reference(Encounter)Healthcare event during which this observation is made
... effective[x]Σ0..1dateTime (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss+zz:zz)Clinically relevant time/time-period for observation
... issuedΣ0..1instant (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.sss+zz:zz)Date/Time this version was made available
... value[x]ΣI0..1Actual result
.... valueQuantityQuantity
.... valueCodeableConceptCodeableConcept
.... valueStringstring
... dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.

... note0..*AnnotationComments about the observation
... referenceRangeI0..*BackboneElementProvides guide for interpretation
.... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... text0..1stringText based reference range in an observation
... componentΣ0..*BackboneElementComponent results
.... id0..1stringUnique id for inter-element referencing
.... extension0..*ExtensionAdditional content defined by implementations
.... modifierExtension?!Σ0..*ExtensionExtensions that cannot be ignored even if unrecognized
.... codeΣ1..1CodeableConceptType of component observation (code / type)
Binding: LOINCCodes (example): Codes identifying names of simple observations.

.... value[x]Σ0..1QuantityActual component result
.... dataAbsentReasonI0..1CodeableConceptWhy the component result is missing
Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible): Codes specifying why the result (Observation.value[x]) is missing.


doco Documentation for this format

Detailed Definitions


Observation

Measurements and simple assertions made about a patient, device or other subject.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Root
Comments Used for simple observations such as device measurements, laboratory atomic results, vital signs, height, weight, smoking status, comments, etc. Other resources are used to provide context for observations such as laboratory reports, etc.

Observation.id

The logical id of the resource, as used in the URL for the resource. Once assigned, this value never changes.

Cardinality 0..1
Type string
Comments The only time that a resource does not have an id is when it is being submitted to the server using a create operation.

Observation.meta

The metadata about the resource. This is content that is maintained by the infrastructure. Changes to the content might not always be associated with version changes to the resource.

Cardinality 0..1
Type Meta

Observation.meta.id

Unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Cardinality 0..1
Type string

Observation.meta.extension

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer can define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Extension
Comments There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.meta.versionId

The version specific identifier, as it appears in the version portion of the URL. This value changes when the resource is created, updated, or deleted.

Cardinality 0..1
Type id
Comments The server assigns this value, and ignores what the client specifies, except in the case that the server is imposing version integrity on updates/deletes.

Observation.meta.lastUpdated

When the resource last changed - e.g. when the version changed.

Cardinality 0..1
Type instant (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.sss+zz:zz)
Comments This value is always populated except when the resource is first being created. The server / resource manager sets this value; what a client provides is irrelevant. This is equivalent to the HTTP Last-Modified and SHOULD have the same value on a read interaction.

Observation.meta.source

A uri that identifies the source system of the resource. This provides a minimal amount of Provenance information that can be used to track or differentiate the source of information in the resource. The source may identify another FHIR server, document, message, database, etc.

Cardinality 0..1
Type uri
Comments In the provenance resource, this corresponds to Provenance.entity.what[x]. The exact use of the source (and the implied Provenance.entity.role) is left to implementer discretion. Only one nominated source is allowed; for additional provenance details, a full Provenance resource should be used. This element can be used to indicate where the current master source of a resource that has a canonical URL if the resource is no longer hosted at the canonical URL.

Observation.meta.profile

A list of profiles (references to StructureDefinition.

Cardinality 0..*
Type canonical
Comments It is up to the server and/or other infrastructure of policy to determine whether/how these claims are verified and/or updated over time. The list of profile URLs is a set.

Observation.meta.security

Security labels applied to this resource. These tags connect specific resources to the overall security policy and infrastructure.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Coding Binding: All Security Labels (extensible)
Comments meta.security will contain an item with code 'NOPAT' if the resource is a lab or radiology result and is not patient facing.

Observation.meta.tag

Tags applied to this resource. Tags are intended to be used to identify and relate resources to process and workflow, and applications are not required to consider the tags when interpreting the meaning of a resource.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Coding Binding: CommonTags (example)
Comments The tags can be updated without changing the stated version of the resource. The list of tags is a set. Uniqueness is based the system/code, and version and display are ignored.

Observation.implicitRules

A reference to a set of rules that were followed when the resource was constructed, and which must be understood when processing the content. Often, this is a reference to an implementation guide that defines the special rules along with other profiles etc.

Cardinality 0..1
Type uri
Comments Asserting this rule set restricts the content to be only understood by a limited set of trading partners. This inherently limits the usefulness of the data in the long term. However, the existing health eco-system is highly fractured, and not yet ready to define, collect, and exchange data in a generally computable sense. Wherever possible, implementers and/or specification writers should avoid using this element. Often, when used, the URL is a reference to an implementation guide that defines these special rules as part of it's narrative along with other profiles, value sets, etc.

Observation.language

The base language in which the resource is written.

Cardinality 0..1
Type code Binding: CommonLanguages (preferred)
Comments Language is provided to support indexing and accessibility (typically, services such as text to speech use the language tag). The html language tag in the narrative applies to the narrative. The language tag on the resource may be used to specify the language of other presentations generated from the data in the resource. Not all the content has to be in the base language. The Resource.language should not be assumed to apply to the narrative automatically. If a language is specified, it should it also be specified on the div element in the html (see rules in HTML5 for information about the relationship between xml:lang and the html lang attribute).

Observation.text

A human-readable narrative that contains a summary of the resource and can be used to represent the content of the resource to a human. The narrative need not encode all the structured data, but is required to contain sufficient detail to make it "clinically safe" for a human to just read the narrative. Resource definitions may define what content should be represented in the narrative to ensure clinical safety.

Cardinality 0..1
Type Narrative
Comments Contained resources do not have narrative. Resources that are not contained SHOULD have a narrative. In some cases, a resource may only have text with little or no additional discrete data (as long as all minOccurs=1 elements are satisfied). This may be necessary for data from legacy systems where information is captured as a "text blob" or where text is additionally entered raw or narrated and encoded information is added later.

Observation.contained

These resources do not have an independent existence apart from the resource that contains them - they cannot be identified independently, and nor can they have their own independent transaction scope.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Resource
Comments This should never be done when the content can be identified properly, as once identification is lost, it is extremely difficult (and context dependent) to restore it again. Contained resources may have profiles and tags In their meta elements, but SHALL NOT have security labels.

Observation.extension

An Extension

Cardinality 1..*
Type Extension

Observation.extension:ahChartSharingGroup

An Extension used to reference a specific athenahealth chart sharing group Organization.

Cardinality 0..1
Type Extension(AthenaChartSharingGroup)

Observation.extension:ahPractice

An Extension used to reference a specific athenahealth practice Organization.

Cardinality 1..1
Type Extension(AthenaPractice)

Observation.modifierExtension

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the resource and that modifies the understanding of the element that contains it and/or the understanding of the containing element's descendants. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer is allowed to define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions. Modifier extensions SHALL NOT change the meaning of any elements on Resource or DomainResource (including cannot change the meaning of modifierExtension itself).

Cardinality 0..*
Type Extension
Comments There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.
Requirements Modifier extensions allow for extensions that *cannot* be safely ignored to be clearly distinguished from the vast majority of extensions which can be safely ignored. This promotes interoperability by eliminating the need for implementers to prohibit the presence of extensions. For further information, see the definition of modifier extensions.

Observation.identifier

A unique identifier assigned to this observation.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Identifier
Requirements Allows observations to be distinguished and referenced.

Observation.status

The status of the result value.

Cardinality 1..1
Type code Binding: ObservationStatus (required)
Comments This element is labeled as a modifier because the status contains codes that mark the resource as not currently valid.
Requirements Need to track the status of individual results. Some results are finalized before the whole report is finalized.

Observation.category

A code that classifies the general type of observation being made.

Cardinality 0..*
Type CodeableConcept Binding: ObservationCategoryCodes (preferred)
Comments In addition to the required category valueset, this element allows various categorization schemes based on the owner's definition of the category and effectively multiple categories can be used at once. The level of granularity is defined by the category concepts in the value set.
Requirements Used for filtering what observations are retrieved and displayed.

Observation.code

Describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation "name".

Cardinality 1..1
Type CodeableConcept Binding: LOINCCodes (example)
Comments *All* code-value and, if present, component.code-component.value pairs need to be taken into account to correctly understand the meaning of the observation.
Requirements Knowing what kind of observation is being made is essential to understanding the observation.

Observation.subject

The patient, or group of patients, location, or device this observation is about and into whose record the observation is placed. If the actual focus of the observation is different from the subject (or a sample of, part, or region of the subject), the `focus` element or the `code` itself specifies the actual focus of the observation.

Cardinality 0..1
Type Reference(Patient)
Comments One would expect this element to be a cardinality of 1..1. The only circumstance in which the subject can be missing is when the observation is made by a device that does not know the patient. In this case, the observation SHALL be matched to a patient through some context/channel matching technique, and at this point, the observation should be updated.
Requirements Observations have no value if you don't know who or what they're about.

Observation.encounter

The healthcare event (e.g. a patient and healthcare provider interaction) during which this observation is made.

Cardinality 0..1
Type Reference(Encounter)
Comments This will typically be the encounter the event occurred within, but some events may be initiated prior to or after the official completion of an encounter but still be tied to the context of the encounter (e.g. pre-admission laboratory tests).
Requirements For some observations it may be important to know the link between an observation and a particular encounter.

Observation.effective[x]

The time or time-period the observed value is asserted as being true. For biological subjects - e.g. human patients - this is usually called the "physiologically relevant time". This is usually either the time of the procedure or of specimen collection, but very often the source of the date/time is not known, only the date/time itself.

Cardinality 0..1
Type dateTime (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss+zz:zz)
Comments At least a date should be present unless this observation is a historical report. For recording imprecise or "fuzzy" times (For example, a blood glucose measurement taken "after breakfast") use the Timing datatype which allow the measurement to be tied to regular life events.
Requirements Knowing when an observation was deemed true is important to its relevance as well as determining trends.

Observation.issued

The date and time this version of the observation was made available to providers, typically after the results have been reviewed and verified.

Cardinality 0..1
Type instant (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.sss+zz:zz)
Comments For Observations that don't require review and verification, it may be the same as the `lastUpdated` time of the resource itself. For Observations that do require review and verification for certain updates, it might not be the same as the `lastUpdated` time of the resource itself due to a non-clinically significant update that doesn't require the new version to be reviewed and verified again.

Observation.value[x]

The information determined as a result of making the observation, if the information has a simple value.

Cardinality 0..1
Type Quantity | CodeableConcept | string
Comments An observation may have; 1) a single value here, 2) both a value and a set of related or component values, or 3) only a set of related or component values. If a value is present, the datatype for this element should be determined by Observation.code. A CodeableConcept with just a text would be used instead of a string if the field was usually coded, or if the type associated with the Observation.code defines a coded value. For additional guidance, see the Notes section below.
Requirements An observation exists to have a value, though it might not if it is in error, or if it represents a group of observations.

Observation.dataAbsentReason

Provides a reason why the expected value in the element Observation.value[x] is missing.

Cardinality 0..1
Type CodeableConcept Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible)
Comments Null or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations. One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value. For example, measurement values for a serology test could be "detected", "not detected", "inconclusive", or "specimen unsatisfactory". The alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values. For example, the dataAbsentReason code "error" could be used when the measurement was not completed. Note that an observation may only be reported if there are values to report. For example differential cell counts values may be reported only when > 0. Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for null or exceptional values.
Requirements For many results it is necessary to handle exceptional values in measurements.

Observation.note

Comments about the observation or the results.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Annotation
Comments May include general statements about the observation, or statements about significant, unexpected or unreliable results values, or information about its source when relevant to its interpretation.
Requirements Need to be able to provide free text additional information.

Observation.referenceRange

Guidance on how to interpret the value by comparison to a normal or recommended range. Multiple reference ranges are interpreted as an "OR". In other words, to represent two distinct target populations, two `referenceRange` elements would be used.

Cardinality 0..*
Type BackboneElement
Comments Most observations only have one generic reference range. Systems MAY choose to restrict to only supplying the relevant reference range based on knowledge about the patient (e.g., specific to the patient's age, gender, weight and other factors), but this might not be possible or appropriate. Whenever more than one reference range is supplied, the differences between them SHOULD be provided in the reference range and/or age properties.
Requirements Knowing what values are considered "normal" can help evaluate the significance of a particular result. Need to be able to provide multiple reference ranges for different contexts.

Observation.referenceRange.id

Unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Cardinality 0..1
Type string

Observation.referenceRange.extension

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer can define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Extension
Comments There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.referenceRange.modifierExtension

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element and that modifies the understanding of the element in which it is contained and/or the understanding of the containing element's descendants. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer can define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions. Modifier extensions SHALL NOT change the meaning of any elements on Resource or DomainResource (including cannot change the meaning of modifierExtension itself).

Cardinality 0..*
Type Extension
Comments There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.
Requirements Modifier extensions allow for extensions that *cannot* be safely ignored to be clearly distinguished from the vast majority of extensions which can be safely ignored. This promotes interoperability by eliminating the need for implementers to prohibit the presence of extensions. For further information, see the definition of modifier extensions.

Observation.referenceRange.text

Text based reference range in an observation which may be used when a quantitative range is not appropriate for an observation. An example would be a reference value of "Negative" or a list or table of "normals".

Cardinality 0..1
Type string

Observation.component

Some observations have multiple component observations. These component observations are expressed as separate code value pairs that share the same attributes. Examples include systolic and diastolic component observations for blood pressure measurement and multiple component observations for genetics observations.

Cardinality 0..*
Type BackboneElement
Comments For a discussion on the ways Observations can be assembled in groups together see Notes below.
Requirements Component observations share the same attributes in the Observation resource as the primary observation and are always treated a part of a single observation (they are not separable). However, the reference range for the primary observation value is not inherited by the component values and is required when appropriate for each component observation.

Observation.component.id

Unique id for the element within a resource (for internal references). This may be any string value that does not contain spaces.

Cardinality 0..1
Type string

Observation.component.extension

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer can define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension.

Cardinality 0..*
Type Extension
Comments There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.

Observation.component.modifierExtension

May be used to represent additional information that is not part of the basic definition of the element and that modifies the understanding of the element in which it is contained and/or the understanding of the containing element's descendants. Usually modifier elements provide negation or qualification. To make the use of extensions safe and manageable, there is a strict set of governance applied to the definition and use of extensions. Though any implementer can define an extension, there is a set of requirements that SHALL be met as part of the definition of the extension. Applications processing a resource are required to check for modifier extensions. Modifier extensions SHALL NOT change the meaning of any elements on Resource or DomainResource (including cannot change the meaning of modifierExtension itself).

Cardinality 0..*
Type Extension
Comments There can be no stigma associated with the use of extensions by any application, project, or standard - regardless of the institution or jurisdiction that uses or defines the extensions. The use of extensions is what allows the FHIR specification to retain a core level of simplicity for everyone.
Requirements Modifier extensions allow for extensions that *cannot* be safely ignored to be clearly distinguished from the vast majority of extensions which can be safely ignored. This promotes interoperability by eliminating the need for implementers to prohibit the presence of extensions. For further information, see the definition of modifier extensions.

Observation.component.code

Describes what was observed. Sometimes this is called the observation "code".

Cardinality 1..1
Type CodeableConcept Binding: LOINCCodes (example)
Comments *All* code-value and component.code-component.value pairs need to be taken into account to correctly understand the meaning of the observation.
Requirements Knowing what kind of observation is being made is essential to understanding the observation.

Observation.component.value[x]

The information determined as a result of making the observation, if the information has a simple value.

Cardinality 0..1
Type Quantity
Comments Used when observation has a set of component observations. An observation may have both a value (e.g. an Apgar score) and component observations (the observations from which the Apgar score was derived). If a value is present, the datatype for this element should be determined by Observation.code. A CodeableConcept with just a text would be used instead of a string if the field was usually coded, or if the type associated with the Observation.code defines a coded value. For additional guidance, see the Notes section below.
Requirements An observation exists to have a value, though it might not if it is in error, or if it represents a group of observations.

Observation.component.dataAbsentReason

Provides a reason why the expected value in the element Observation.component.value[x] is missing.

Cardinality 0..1
Type CodeableConcept Binding: DataAbsentReason (extensible)
Comments "Null" or exceptional values can be represented two ways in FHIR Observations. One way is to simply include them in the value set and represent the exceptions in the value. For example, measurement values for a serology test could be "detected", "not detected", "inconclusive", or "test not done". The alternate way is to use the value element for actual observations and use the explicit dataAbsentReason element to record exceptional values. For example, the dataAbsentReason code "error" could be used when the measurement was not completed. Because of these options, use-case agreements are required to interpret general observations for exceptional values.
Requirements For many results it is necessary to handle exceptional values in measurements.

Interactions

READ

Read interactions are executed as specified in the HL7 FHIR RESTful API read specification. To read Observation resources, an application will perform an HTTP GET specifying the logical ID of the Observation being retrieved.

The [patient|user|system]/Observation.read authorization scope is required.

GET
/fhir/r4/Observation/{logicalId}
Try in Postman

Parameters

required

conditional required

Name Type Description
logicalId string (REQUIRED) The logical ID of the resource (alias: Resource.id). It is specified in the URL path and not as a query parameter.

Response Codes

Response code Description
200 OK The requested Observation resource was found and is contained within the body of the HTTP response.
400 Bad Request The server could not understand the request due to invalid syntax. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the invalid request could not be processed.
404 Not Found The requested resource does not exist. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the resource could not be found.
410 Gone The requested resource has been permanently deleted from server with no forwarding address. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the resource could not be found.
500 Internal Server Error The server has encountered a situation it doesn't know how to handle. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the nature of the error.
5xx Server Error The server may return other error codes to indicate other error conditions. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the nature of the error.

GET SEARCH

Search interactions are executed as specified in the HL7 FHIR RESTful API search specification. To search for Observation resources using the HTTP GET method, an application will perform the HTTP GET specifying the query parameters associated with the Observation in the URL.

The [patient|user|system]/Observation.read authorization scope is required.

The following additional authorization scopes might be required depending on _include and/or _revinclude search parameters used:

  • [patient|user|system]/Encounter.read
  • [patient|user|system]/Organization.read
  • [patient|user|system]/Patient.read
  • [patient|user|system]/Provenance.read

GET
/fhir/r4/Observation
Try in Postman

Parameters

Observation search requests conditionally require one of the following search parameters or search parameter combinations in order to match and return a result set:
  • patient
  • _id

required

conditional required

Name Type Description
ah-practice reference Identify the athenahealth Practice Organization (e.g., 'ah-practice=Organization/a-1.Practice-[practiceId]')
_id token (CONDITIONAL REQUIRED) Observation.id resource reference to FHIR Observation resource
patient reference (CONDITIONAL REQUIRED) Observation.subject resource reference to FHIR Patient resource
date date Observation.issued is the parameter for searching on date
category token Observation.category is the parameter for searching on category
code token Observation.code is the parameter for searching on code
encounter reference Observation.encounter is the parameter for searching by encounter
_count number The number of Observation resources to return per page for paged search results.
cursor token Search by cursor token for first resource to return in a paged search result
ah-chart-sharing-group reference Search by athenahealth Chart Sharing Group (e.g., 'ah-chart-sharing-group=Organization/a-[practiceId].CSG-[csgId]') for resources containing the 'Athena Chart Sharing Group' Extension
_include string Requests the server to include the referenced resource(s) in the search results according to the specified search parameter. Additional authorization scope(s) will be required. The supported _include parameter values are:
  • Observation:ah-chart-sharing-group - Included resource(s) Organization and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Organization.read
  • Observation:ah-practice - Included resource(s) Organization and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Organization.read
  • Observation:encounter - Included resource(s) Encounter and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Encounter.read
  • Observation:patient - Included resource(s) Patient and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Patient.read
_revinclude string Requests the server to include the associated resource(s) in the search results according to the specified search parameter. Additional authorization scope(s) will be required. The supported _revinclude parameter values are:
  • Provenance:target - Associated resource(s) Provenance and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Provenance.read

Response Codes

Response code Description
200 OK The search request succeeded. The body of the HTTP response will contain a Bundle resource containing the results of the search.
403 Forbidden The server refused to perform the search due to a missing required search parameter. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that includes the required search parameters.
500 Internal Server Error The server has encountered a situation it doesn't know how to handle. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the nature of the error.
5xx Server Error The server may return other error codes to indicate other error conditions. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the nature of the error.

POST SEARCH

Search interactions are executed as specified in the HL7 FHIR RESTful API search specification. To search for Observation resources using the HTTP POST method, an application will perform the HTTP POST specifying the query parameters associated with the Observation in the request body.

The [patient|user|system]/Observation.read authorization scope is required.

The following additional authorization scopes might be required depending on _include and/or _revinclude search parameters used:

  • [patient|user|system]/Encounter.read
  • [patient|user|system]/Organization.read
  • [patient|user|system]/Patient.read
  • [patient|user|system]/Provenance.read

POST
/fhir/r4/Observation/_search
Try in Postman

Request Header

Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

Request Body

param1=value1&param2=value2...

Parameters

Observation search requests conditionally require one of the following search parameters or search parameter combinations in order to match and return a result set:
  • patient
  • _id

required

conditional required

Name Type Description
ah-practice reference Identify the athenahealth Practice Organization (e.g., 'ah-practice=Organization/a-1.Practice-[practiceId]')
_id token (CONDITIONAL REQUIRED) Observation.id resource reference to FHIR Observation resource
patient reference (CONDITIONAL REQUIRED) Observation.subject resource reference to FHIR Patient resource
date date Observation.issued is the parameter for searching on date
category token Observation.category is the parameter for searching on category
code token Observation.code is the parameter for searching on code
encounter reference Observation.encounter is the parameter for searching by encounter
_count number The number of Observation resources to return per page for paged search results.
cursor token Search by cursor token for first resource to return in a paged search result
ah-chart-sharing-group reference Search by athenahealth Chart Sharing Group (e.g., 'ah-chart-sharing-group=Organization/a-[practiceId].CSG-[csgId]') for resources containing the 'Athena Chart Sharing Group' Extension
_include string Requests the server to include the referenced resource(s) in the search results according to the specified search parameter. Additional authorization scope(s) will be required. The supported _include parameter values are:
  • Observation:ah-chart-sharing-group - Included resource(s) Organization and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Organization.read
  • Observation:ah-practice - Included resource(s) Organization and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Organization.read
  • Observation:encounter - Included resource(s) Encounter and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Encounter.read
  • Observation:patient - Included resource(s) Patient and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Patient.read
_revinclude string Requests the server to include the associated resource(s) in the search results according to the specified search parameter. Additional authorization scope(s) will be required. The supported _revinclude parameter values are:
  • Provenance:target - Associated resource(s) Provenance and required scope(s) [patient|user|system]/Provenance.read

Response Codes

Response code Description
200 OK The search request succeeded. The body of the HTTP response will contain a Bundle resource containing the results of the search.
403 Forbidden The server refused to perform the search due to a missing required search parameter. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that includes the required search parameters.
500 Internal Server Error The server has encountered a situation it doesn't know how to handle. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the nature of the error.
5xx Server Error The server may return other error codes to indicate other error conditions. The body of the HTTP response will contain an OperationOutcome resource that indicates the nature of the error.
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